18 psychological aspect of art: that art is incomplete without the perceptual and emotional involvement of the viewer > Beholder's involvement and beholder's share. Ambiguity in visual perception: every powerful image is inherently ambiguous because it arises from the experiences and conflicts in the artist's life. The viewers responds to this ambiguity in terms of his or her own experiences and conflicts, recapitulating in a modest way the experience of the artist in creating the image...Because the event of the viewer's contribution depends on the degree of ambiguity in the image =, awork of abstract art, with its lack of reference to identifiable forms, arguably puts greater demands on the beholder's imagination than a figurative work does. Perhaps it is these demands that make abstract works seem difficult to some viewers, yet rewarding to those who find in them an expansive, transcendent experience.
22 Bottom-up information is supplied by computations that are inherent om the circuitry of our brain. Top-down information refers to cognitive influences and higher order mental functions such as attention, imagery, expectations and learned visual associations. Top-down information places the image into a personal psychological context, thereby conveying different meanings about it to different people (Gilbert 2013; Albright:2013).
26 Vision is the process of discovering from images what is present in-the visual world and where it is.
33 Holistic face detection. Monkey;s strength of facial recognition with various types of facial stimuli.... responds more powerfully to cartoons than to real objects because the features in the a cartoon are exaggerated.Such exaggerated responses are mediated by the built-in machinery of bottom-up processing
44 continental philosophers Rene Descartes, Gottfried Leibniz, and particularly Immanuel Kant argued that we are born with a-priori knowledge; our mind receive and interprets sensory experience in an innately determined framework.
58 abstract art relies more heavily on top-down processing ± and there on our emotions, our imagination, and our creativity.
cool phrases: basic architecture of behaviour/ Our brain creates the external world / understand how our brain mediates our perception and enjoyment of art
! How we should engage art and design should be based in science of visual perception and processing. If we want the participants to be more imaginative and tapping into their experiences, we should have Top-down information than bottom-up information(80/20%). Regarding the monkey's responee to an cartoon image, the exaggerated features trigger more response compared to a figurative depiction of another monkey. Maybe that is is, it is modulating the brain synapses in our creations.
closure - we make sense of the world through our limited and fragmented experiences